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 VALLEY OF THE QUEENS

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مُساهمةموضوع: VALLEY OF THE QUEENS   الأربعاء سبتمبر 01, 2010 10:53 pm

VALLEY OF THE QUEENS

The Valley of the Queens is located on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes). There are between 75 and 80 tombs in the Valley of the Queens, or Biban al-Harim. These belong to Queens of the 18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties.
These include The Tomb of Khaemwese (Tomb 44): Scenes in Khaemwese's tomb show him being presented to the guardians of the gates to the afterlife along with his father. He is making an offering in the scene, and is dressed in a robe, wearing a necklace and the sidelocks of youth.
The Tomb of Queent Titi (Tomb 52): She is probably the queen of a 20th Dynasty. She is depicted with the sidelocks common to the Egyptian young of the period and in the presence of the gods Thoth, Atum, Isis and Nephthys. In the next chamber the queen is shown making offerings to Hathor the cow, and in the last chamber the gods Neith, Osiris, Selquit, Nephthys and Thoth.
The Tomb of Amenhikhopeshef (Tomb 55): Amenhikhopeshef was a son of Ramesses III and scenes show him with his father and the gods Thoth, Ptah and others. He was probably about nine years old when he died. Scenes show him being presented to various gods, including Anubis, the Jackal-headed god of the dead, by his father, Ramesses III. A premature baby was also found in to tomb. This belonged to this mother, who aborted upon learning of Amenhikhopeshef's death.



Nefertari
The Tomb of Nefertari (Tomb 66): One of five wives of Ramesses II, Nefertari was his favorite and the tomb here has been is said to be one of the most beautiful in Egypt. The tomb is completely painted with scenes though out. In most of these, Nefertari, known as 'the most beautiful of them', is accompanied by gods. She is usually wearing a golden crown with two feathers extended from the back of a vulture and clothed in a white, gossamer gown. Be sure not to miss the side room where one scene depicts the queen worshipping the mummified body of Osiris. Near the stairs to the burial chamber is another wonderful scene with Nefertarti offering milk to the goddess Hathor.

VALLEY OF THE KINGS
TOMBS OF THE PHARAOHS




The Egyptian belief that "To speak the name of the dead is to make him live again" is certainly carried out in the building of the tombs. The king's formal names and titles are inscribed in his tomb along with his images and statues. Beginning with the 18th Dynasty and ending with the 20th, the kings abandoned the Memphis area and built their tombs in Thebes. Also abandoned were the pyramid style tombs. Most of the tombs were cut into the limestone following a similar pattern: three corridors, an antechamber and a sunken sarcophagus chamber. These catacombs were harder to rob and were more easily concealed. Construction usually lasted six years, beginning with the new reign. The text in the tombs are from the Book of the Dead, the Book of the Gates and the Book of the Underworld. See also a history and overview of the Valley of the Kings.



Entry to the Valley of the Kings

Ramesses IV

Three white corridors descend to the sarcophagus chamber in this tomb. The chambers ceilings depict the goddess Nut. The lid of the pink granite sarcophagus is decorated with Isis and Nephthys, which were meant to serve as guardians over the body. Their duties fell short, however, as the tomb was robbed in ancient times. Originally the priests placed the sarcophagus in Amenhotep II's tomb in order to hide the body, which was a common practice.





Ramesses IX


Two sets of steps lead down to the tomb door that is decorated with the Pharaoh worshipping the solar disc. Isis and Nephthys stand behind him on either side. Three corridors lead into an antechamber that opens into a pillared hall. The passage beyond that leads to the sarcophagus chamber.

Merneptah


The steep descent into the tombis typical of the designs of the XIX Dynasty. The entrance is decorated with Isis and Nephthys worshipping the solar disc. Text from the Book of the Gates line the corridors. The outer granite lid of the sarcophagus is located in the antechamber, while the lid of the inner sarcophagus is located down more steps in the pillared hall. Carved on the pink granite lid is the figure of Merneptah as Osiris.

Ramesses VI

Originally built for Ramesses V this tomb has three chambers and a 4th pillared chamber was added by Ramesses VI. Complete texts of the Book of the Gates, the Book of Caverns and the Book of Day and Night line the chambers. Portions of the Book of the Dead are located in the pillared chamber, along with scenes of the sky goddess, Nut.




The Burial Chamber in the Tomb of Ramesses VI
Ramesses III


The tomb is sometimes referred to as the "Harpers Tomb" due to the two harpers playing to the gods in four of the chambers. Ten small chambers branch off of the main corridors. These were for the placement of tomb furniture.




Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu


Seti I

The longest tomb in the valley, 100m, contains very well preserved reliefs in all of its eleven chambers and side rooms. One of the back chambers is decorated with the Ritual of the Opening of the Mouth, which stated that the mummy's eating and drinking organs were properly functioning. Believing in the need for these functions in the afterlife, this was a very important ritual. The sarcophagus is now in the Sir John Soane Museum, London.




From the Temple of Seti I at Abydos
Tuthmosis III


The approach to this unusual tomb is an ascent up wooden steps, crossing over a pit, and then a steep descent down into the tomb. The pit was probably dug as a deterrent to tomb robbers. Two small chambers, decorated with stars, and a larger vestibule are in front of the sarcophagus chamber, which is uniquely rounded and decorated with only red and black.

Amenhotep II

In this Tomb, a steep flight of stairs and a long unadorned corridor lead to the sarcophagus chamber. Three mummies, Tuthmosis IV, Amenhotep II III and Seti II, were found in one side room and nine mummies were found in another.

Horemheb

This tomb's construction is identical to that of Seti I's with the exception of some of the inner decorations.




Temple

Tutankhamun


Though small and unimpressive, Tutankhamun's Tomb is probably the most famous, due to its late discovery. Howard Carter's description upon opening the tomb in 1922 was, "At first I could see nothing, the hot air escaping from the chamber causing the candle flames to flicker, but presently, as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues and gold - everywhere the glint of gold. For the moment - an eternity it must have seemed to the others standing by - I was dumb with amazement, and when Lord Carnarvon, unable to stand the suspense any longer, inquired anxiously, 'Can you see anything?' it was all I could do to get out the words, "Yes, wonderful things."' The royal seal on the door was found intact. The first three chambers were unadorned, with evidence of early entrance through one of the outside walls. The next chamber contained most of the funerary objects. The sarcophagus was four guilded wooden shrines, one inside the other, within which lay the stone sarcophagus, three mummiform coffins, the inner one being solid gold, and then the mummy. Haste can be seen in the reliefs and the sarcophagus, due to the fact that Tutankhamun died at only 19 years of age following a brief reign. Though extremely impressive to the modern world, the treasures of Tutankhamun must have paled when compared to the tombs of the great Pharaohs that ruled for many years during Egypt's golden age.

See Also the Tutankhamun Collection.




From the Tomb of Tutankhamun


























:
Additional Tombs

18th Dynasty Tombs
18th Dynasty Tombs (cont'd)
KV 12 Unknown KV 41 unknown
KV 20
Hatshepsut
KV 42
Hatshepsut-Meryetre
KV 21 two queens KV 43
Tuthmosis IV

WV 22
Amenhetep III
KV 44 Anen (?)
WV 23
Ay
KV 45 Userhet
WV 24 Unknown KV 46
Yuya and Thuya
WV 25 Akhenaten (?)
KV 48 Amenemopet
KV 26 Unknown KV 49 Maya (?)
KV 27 Unknown KV 50 animals
KV 28 Unknown KV 51 animals
KV 29 Unknown KV 52 animals
KV 30 Unknown KV 53 unknown
KV 31 Unknown KV 54 ca. Tutankhamen

KV 32 Unknown KV 55
Tiye, Akhenaten or Other
KV 33 ca. Tuthmosis III
KV 56 unknown
KV 34
Tuthmosis III
KV 57
Horemheb

KV 35
Amenhetep II
KV 58 ca. Ay

KV 36 Maiherperi KV 59 unknown
KV 37 ca. Tuthmosis III
KV 60
two women (Setri In?)
KV 38
Tuthmosis I
KV 61 unknown
KV 39
Unknown KV 62
Tutankhamen

KV 40 Unknown
19th Dynasty Tombs
20th Dynasty Tombs

KV 5
Sons of Rameses II
KV 1
Rameses VII

KV 7
Rameses II
KV 2
Rameses IV

KV 8
Merenptah
KV 3 ca. Rameses III

KV 10
Amenmeses
KV 4
Rameses XI

KV 13 Bay KV 6
Rameses IX

KV 14
Tausert / Setnakht
KV 9
Rameses V / VI

KV 15
Seti II
KV 11
Rameses III

KV 16
Rameses I
KV 18
Rameses X

KV 17
Seti I
KV 19
Mentuherkhepshef
KV 47
Siptah


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VALLEY OF THE QUEENS
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