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 CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DISCOVERY CHANNEL'S

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الموقع : اللهم صلي وسلم وبارك علي سيدنا ""محمد"" عليه أفضل الصلاة والسلام

مُساهمةموضوع: CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DISCOVERY CHANNEL'S   السبت يوليو 24, 2010 3:11 pm

Critical Analysis of the Discovery Channel's
Nefertiti Revealed
by Jimmy Dunn



I frequently find myself tuned to the Discovery Channel and for good reason. I enjoy learning and more than just about Egypt. Certainly the Discovery Channel makes this interesting, but as an expert in a topic that they frequently explore, Egypt, I also know that they can overstate theories while at other times completely misstating facts. Overall, the life of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] and the Amarna Period as depicted in their recent show entitled, Nefertiti Revealed, was of course, mostly factual. It was small points made throughout the special that were a bother, along with a definite slant towards Joann Fletcher's theories regarding Nefertiti's mummy and a few other matters related to her life. This is a critical analysis of this documentary, so hopefully no one will be too upset if we become a little nit-picky on some of the small points, and perhaps even a little more critical on some of the major points. I knew that there would be a few problems when, in the first minute of the show, it was stated that Egypt was the only world superpower during this period. Certainly Egypt was a superpower, and was not so very distant from it's most powerful position in the ancient world. However, there were other powers in Asia that were, during the reign of Akhenaten, very much challenging Egypt's domination. I won't even attempt to grace the Afro wig of the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], or the fact that [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] rode a horse with stirrups out into the desert with a few companions to search out the future location of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]. In fact, the details of the show were so poor in places that a number of Egyptian enthusiasts I have heard from turned it off. However, lets move on.


Views of Nefertiti's famous bust, known as the Berlin Bust


There are basically three major issues that need to be explored concerning this show. They include the amount of power that [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] actually wielded, whether or not she was ever named a co-regent of her husband, whether or not she was ever the sole ruler of Egypt, and the identification of her mummy. Of these questions, all but the issue of her power is in question and that topic was perhaps over done to some extent.



It was stated that [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] was as powerful as her husband and the most powerful woman in the world. These two statements may nearly be correct. Indeed, at this point in time, she may have very well been the most powerful woman in the world. There was also certainly the appearance of her equality with her husband. However, it is difficult to really say that any woman in ancient Egypt could, in reality, be as powerful as their husbands, even though there were a few very powerful queens. Yet even those queens often took on the appearance of a man, and that is the whole point. In her household, Nefertiti could have wielded considerable power, but outside of that, her power was almost certainly derived from that of her husband. Which brings up another point, perhaps, of over dramatization. Here, we find in the Discovery Channel special [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] racing her husband in a chariot, and there she is physically shown about to smite the enemies of Egypt.

Indeed, Nefertiti is depicted on ancient reliefs doing just these very things, but most Egyptologists consider that this was probably very symbolic. Not that this should distract from the fact that she was, in fact, a very powerful woman to even have been shown in reliefs to be participating in these typically kingly acts, but it is somewhat doubtful that she physically carried out functions. In fact, it may be doubtful that her husband actually smited any real enemies. Nefertiti's possible role as co-regent with her husband and perhaps as ruler after his death are closely related. If she was co-regent, then she may very well have ruled after his death. There are Egyptologists who do believe that she did so, but perhaps many more believe that she simply died earlier in Akhenaten's reign. Interestingly, while the Discovery Channel presentation placed great emphasis on the missing bent arm that was discovered, and does seem to belong to the mummy, this is not the evidence that earlier speculation is based upon. Rather, it is the similarities between part of the name that is shared by both Smenkhkare and [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] (actually, after adapting a new name, Neferneferuaten) as a prenomen, Ankhkheperure. There is some other minor evidence for her becoming a co-regent and also serving as ruler of Egypt, but again many if not most Egyptologists don't think so. As for the identification of her mummy, I would have been rather rougher in this critique had not [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] and [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] not been allowed to at least provide some counter. Neither pointedly denied the possibility that this is [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]'s mummy, but there point was simple. The tests performed and the analysis made on the Discovery Channel in no way where near infallible, and it remains just about as likely that the mummy is not that of Nefertiti, if not more so, than that it is.

While we have some respect for Joann Fletcher, who has in the past contributed to Tour Egypt, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] and [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] should have probably been given some voice throughout the show, as they are two of the most prominent Egyptologists in the world today. Furthermore I thought that it was interesting how Joann Fletcher would wish both for the mummy to be that of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], and for Nefertiti to have ruled Egypt after [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]'s death. This idea seems to be a bit mutually exclusive. The scientists examining the mummy seem to believe that she could not have been over the age of about thirty years, and more likely mid to late twenties. However, Akhenaten ruled Egypt we believe for about seventeen years, so it becomes difficult to think that his queen died at even thirty, while outliving the king. Most Egyptologists do in fact believe that Nefertiti may have died around the age given the mummy, but this would have been earlier in Akhenaten's reign. Lets carry this a bit farther and see what evidence may have been omitted or not taken into consideration. First of all, so what if this mummy was of royal bearing and of the remains date to the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط].



Most only [url=http://www.touregypt.net/ehistory.htm#New Kingdom]New Kingdom[/url] royalty were buried in the royal necropolises on the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] at [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] (modern [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]), a period that only covered the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] and [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]. There were in fact plenty of royal women from this period and the mummy's identification as an 18th Dynasty figure proves very little. Furthermore, people from a royal family or even from a specific area can end up looking very similar, and certainly daughter can look very much like their mothers, as can cousins and other relatives. Who is to say that the mummy is not one of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]'s daughters or other relatives. A number of people I have spoken to since the show even think that there is very little resemblance between the computer mockup and the bust of Nefertiti. Finally, lets talk about the wounds.

Many, many mummies were damaged by tomb robbers in ancient Egypt looking for hidden treasure. [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] were stuck within the body cavities of mummies, so they often broke apart pieces, including arms and other limbs in order to remove jewelry. Which also brings up the matter of the bent arm. Joann Fletcher seems to indicate that mummies with bent arms is unique to kings in ancient Egypt. Actually, it seems more unique simply to men in general, and usually with both arms bent. They also often became somewhat malicious, breaking apart and vandalizing the mummy more than needed to remove these precious items, perhaps because of their frustrated lives while living under some rulers. It is really somewhat doubtful that, 200 years after her death, tomb raiders would break into and purposely desecrate the body of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] for who she was. We really do not know how the queen died and perhaps it could have been by violent means, but there is no hard evidence anywhere that would suggest such an end to her life. Frankly, the problems with this show are twofold. First of all, there are the minor details, many of which were simply inaccurate.

This is really an important aspect of the show, and I would wish to quote a reader named dawn from the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]: "Whenever I see a show that ignores the little details, I get very angry. And when the little details are awry, it's almost a given that the bigger ones will be, too. This is tragic because, as we all know, this particular show will now become Truth. Once little inaccuracies are accepted, they become something of a cancer. They are very hard to eradicate, and all too often find their way into textbooks where they continue to poison. Something like this will probably be shown to many classes, and will be used to support papers written by swarms of kids. And it won't be long before the priest in the huge wig becomes "fact", and the mummy in question "becomes" Nefertiti.

" The second problem was that many of the main issues were discussed in a manner that was far too one-sided. It probably would have been a much better presentation if the spotlight had not so focused on Joann Fletcher, but allowed others to have a larger voice.








Re
by Taylor Ray Ellison


Some assume that Amun (Amen, Amon) was a relatively modern god within the context of ancient Egyptian religion. His worship at Thebes, where the earliest known Temple dedicated to him was located, is only documented from the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] onward.

It is true that he gained most of his prestige after replacing the war god [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] as the principle god of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] during Egypt's [url=http://www.touregypt.net/ehistory.htm#New Kingdom]New Kingdom[/url], when he was recognized as the "King of Gods". At that time, because of Egypt's influence in the world, he actually became a universal god. In fact, by the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], Amun-Re was even the chief god of the Nubian Kingdom of Napata and by the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], he was regarded as the Egyptian equivalent of Zeus. However, he is actually mentioned in the pyramid text from the Old Kingdom ([ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] - line 558), which show him to be a primeval deity and a symbol of creative force. This text seems to assign great antiquity to his existence.

Amun-Re grew so important spiritually and politically by the time of the New Kingdom that Egypt became something of a Theocracy. At the apex of his worship, Egyptian religion approached monotheism. The other gods became mere symbols of his power, or manifestations of Amun-Re. In essence, he became the one and only supreme deity.

He was one of the eight Heh gods of the Ogdoad of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], where his original consort was Amaunet (Ament). His worship may have originated at Hermopolis, but another possibility was that he functioned early on as a less prominent god at Thebes, where he eventually flourished. The Nubians, however, believed that he originated at Gebel Barkal, located in the modern north of the Sudan.

In the middle of the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], with the expulsion of the Hyksos rulers of Egypt, Amun's growth was accelerated due to the vindication of both Egyptian power and Amun-Re as a protector of both the Egyptian state and the Monarchy. At that time, temples were built and dedicated to Amun throughout Egypt, including the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] and the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]. His importance during this and later periods is evidenced by the grander and extravagance of these temples. They were enlarged and enriched over the centuries by rulers of Egypt who were eager to express their devotion to Amun-Re.

In fact, his growth to that of a national god mirrored the growth of Thebes in importance. This growth was accelerated when [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] took control of the thrown at Thebes, and founded the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]. However, the apex of his worship probably occurred during the New Kingdom onward at Thebes, where the important [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] was dedicated to Amun. During the Opet festival, the statue of Amun was conveyed by boat from the temple of Karnak to Luxor in order to celebrate Amun's marriage to Mut in his aspect of Ka-mut-ef (literally, "bull of his mother"). In this capacity, Amun was recognized for his procreative function. Together, Amun and [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] conceived their son, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], a moon god, to make of the Thebes Triad.

The sacred animal of Amun was originally the Goose, and like [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], he was sometimes known as the "Great Cackler". Later, Amun was more closely associated with the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], a symbol of fertility. At various times he also sometimes appears as a man with the head of a frog, the head of a uraeus, the head of a crocodile, or as an ape. However, when depicted as a king, he wears the crown of two plumes, a symbol borrowed from [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], and often sits on a throne. In this form, he is one of nine deities who compose the company of gods of Amen-Ra. In the Greek period (and somewhat earlier, in order to ascribe many attributes to Amun-Re, he was sometimes depicted in bronze with the bearded head of a man, the body of a beetle with the wings of a hawk, the legs of a man and the toes and claws of a lion. He was further provided with four hands and arms and four wings.





The worship surrounding Amun, and later, Amun-Re represented one of ancient Egypt's most complex theologies. In his most mature form, Amun-Re became a hidden, secret god. In fact, his name (Imn), or at lest the name by which the ancient Egyptians called him, means "the hidden one" or "the secret one" (though there has been speculation that his name is derived from the Libyan word for water, aman. However, modern context seems to negate this possibility). In reality, however, and according to mythology, both his name and physical appearance were unknown, thus indicating his unknowable essence.





Stated differently, Amun was unknown because he represented absolute holiness, and in this regard, he was different then any other Egyptian deity. So holy was he that he remained independent of the created universe. He was associated with the air as an invisible force, which facilitated his growth as a supreme deity. He was the Egyptian creator deity par excellence, and according to Egyptian myth, was self-created. It was believed that he could regenerate himself by becoming a snake and shedding his skin. At the same time, he remained apart from creation, totally different from it, and fully independent from it.

However, while hidden, the addition to his name of "Re" revealed the god to humanity. Re was the common Egyptian term for the sun, thus making him visible. Hence, Amun-Re combined within himself the two opposites of divinity, the hidden and the revealed. As Amun, he was secret, hidden and mysterious, but as Re, he was visible and revealed. In some respects, this even relates to his association with [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], the Egyptian concept of order and balance, and reflects back upon the ancient Egyptian's concepts of duality.

The secret, or hidden attribute of Amun enabled him to be easily synchronized and associated with other deities. At Thebes, Amun was first identified with Montu, but soon replaced him as the city's protector. His association with Re grew in importance when Amenemhet I moved the capital of Egypt to Itjtawy at the apex of the Nile Delta, where the relationship was probably expedient both theologically and politically. However, this association with Re actually grew as Thebes itself gained importance. Soon, Amun was identified with other gods as well, taking on the names (among others) Amun-Re-Atum, Amun-Re-Montu, Amun-Re-Horakhty and Min-Amun. However, it should be noted that with all of this synchronization, Amun was not absorbed to create a a new god. Instead, there was a unity of divine power with these other gods.

















Amun-Re was associated with the Egyptian monarchy, and theoretically, rather than threatening the pharaoh's power, the throne was supported by Amun-Re. The ancient theology made Amun-Re the physical father of the king. Hence, the Pharaoh and Amun-Re enjoyed a symbiotic relationship, with the king deriving power from Amun-Re. In return, the king supported the temples and the worship of Amun. In theory, Amun-Re could even take the form of the king in order to impregnate the chief royal wife with the successor to the throne (first documented during the reign of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] during the New Kingdom). Furthermore, according to official state theology during the New Kingdom, Egypt was actually ruled by Amun-Re through the pharaohs, with the god revealing his will through oracles.

In reality, the god did in fact threaten the monarchy, for the cult of Amun-Re became so powerful that its priesthood grew very large and influential, and at one point, priests of the deity actually came to rule Egypt (during the [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]). At other times, Amun-Re created difficulties for the king, such as in the case of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], who sought to change the basic structure of Egyptian religion. In this instance, Amun-Re eventually proved more powerful then the king, for though Akhenaten desperately tried to change the nature of Egyptian religion, for such efforts he himself became the scorn of later pharaohs. After Akhenaten's reign, Egyptian religion almost immediately reverted back to its prior form and to the worship of Amun-Re.

References:
Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Reference Number
Ancient Gods Speak, The: A Guide to Egyptian Religion
Redford, Donald B.
2002
Oxford University Press
ISBN 0-19-515401-0
Atlas of Ancient Egypt
Baines, John; Malek, Jaromir
1980
Les Livres De France
None Stated
Egyptian Religion
Morenz, Siegfried
1973
Cornell University Press
ISBN 0-8014-8029-9
Gods of the Egyptians, The (Studies in Egyptian Mythology)
Budge, E. A. Wallis
1969
Dover Publications, Inc.
ISBN 486-22056-7
History of Ancient Egypt, A
Grimal, Nicolas
1988
Blackwell
None Stated
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
Shaw, Ian
2000
Oxford University Press
ISBN 0-19-815034-2
Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, The
McManners, John
1992
Oxford University Press
ISBN 0-19-285259-0
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
2001
Friedman/Fairfax
ISBN 1-5866-3295-7
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://egoth.rigala.ne
حمزه الحجاجى

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DISCOVERY CHANNEL'S   السبت يوليو 24, 2010 6:21 pm

very good
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DISCOVERY CHANNEL'S
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
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